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Fact Sheet

Anorexia Nervosa

What is anorexia?

Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder that causes people to obsess about their weight and the food they eat.  The disorder is primarily characterized by excessive weight loss and self-starvation, or a refusal to eat the amount of food required to maintain a healthy body weight. Anorexia is often found in people who have also been diagnosed with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, causing them to desire a body much different than their own.

Anorexia Nervosa is often found in a younger population, specifically recognized in girls aged 15 to 18. It can also occur in older populations, and can often be seen as an issue in the lives of celebrities. “Manorexia” is a term that has been penned to describe men with anorexia.


What causes anorexia?

While an exact cause can be difficult to determine, anorexia nervosa is generally caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.  Anorexia Nervosa is also a psychological disorder, where people, who develop this disorder, tend to have certain personality types, such as perfectionism, neuroticism and low self-esteem. Recently. studies have reported a connection between body image issues and popular culture that have been pervasive direct link between the two

Other Common Causes

  • Broken relationships
  • Stress
  • Exposure to new situations
  • Loss
  • Genes
  • Extreme dieting
  • Abuse
  • Peer pressure
  • Crisis
  • Family history of addictive personalities


What are the warning signs?

People with Anorexia Nervosa may show off their weight loss with revealing or tight-fitting clothing.  However, another common practice is wearing baggy clothing to cover up the amount of weight they have lost.  Other warning signs include:

  • Eating very little, if at all
  • Extreme weight loss
  • Withdrawal from social situations, especially those involving food
  • Frequent comments about or preoccupation with food, calories and fat
  • Thinning hair
  • Forgetfulness or lack of concentration
  • Depression
  • Excessive exercise or strict adherence to an exercise program
  • Only eating alone
  • Excluding certain types of food from one’s diet, such as carbohydrates or foods high in saturated fat
  • Irregular/nonexistent menstrual cycles in women

How is Anorexia Nervosa different from other eating disorders?

Anorexia Nervosa is similar to other eating disorders, like Bulimia Nervosa and binge eating, in that it is generally connected with a distorted body image and altered eating habits.  Even if all the evidence points to the contrary, a person with Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, or a binge eating disorder will convince themselves that they are overweight. No matter how much weight they lose, they will always think they have to lose more.

However, anorexia is different from the other two because of the severe restriction of the amount of food consumed.  People suffering from anorexia may go through periods of binge eating or purging, but these episodes may occur less often than with people suffering from a different disorder.  Also, a person suffering from anorexia will typically have a body weight well below a healthy range, less than 15 percent below normal weight.

How to get help

If you think you or a friend might have any one of these symptoms, there are options available to aid in reversing the disorder.  Besides therapy—both group and personal—there are body image resources out there.

Your own personal body image may not be the only issue causing the disorder. Anorexia Nervosa is a psychological disorder, which means treatment from a mental health professional may be necessary to address the root causes of the disorder, not just the effects. The sooner a person receives treatment, the easier it will be to recover. Also, the way that other people see a person takes a toll on how they see themselves.  It is important to surround yourself with people who support you getting better.

For more information check out the National Eating Disorders Association and the National Institute of Mental Health. Last edited by Kristie - March, 2014.

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